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India plans to dive deep for worthwhile minerals scattered on the seabed. However at what price? – NEWPAPER24

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India plans to dive deep for worthwhile minerals scattered on the seabed. However at what price?

2018-12-05 18:15:37


Within the 1870 Jules Verne basic 20,000 Leagues Underneath the Sea, underwater explorer Captain Nemo predicted the mining of the ocean flooring’s mineral bounty – zinc, iron, silver and gold.

India is catching up with that solely now, because it prepares to unearth treasures down beneath, aiming to spice up its economic system.

The ground of the world’s seas is scattered with huge beds of black potato-shaped polymetallic nodules comprising copper, nickel, cobalt, manganese, iron and uncommon earth parts. These pure goodies are key to creating fashionable devices, from smartphones and laptops to pacemakers, hybrid automobiles and photo voltaic panels.

As increasing expertise and infrastructure gas international demand for these assets – whose provide is dwindling quick onshore – increasingly more international locations, together with manufacturing powerhouses India and China, are eyeing the ocean.

“We’ve got to rely upon ocean assets eventually … there isn’t a different approach,” mentioned Gidugu Ananda Ramadass, head of India’s deep sea mining mission on the Nationwide Institute of Ocean Know-how (NIOT) within the southern metropolis of Chennai. “For the way forward for mankind … the ocean is the one hope.”

India, Asia’s third-largest economic system, goes full steam forward in anticipation of the Worldwide Seabed Authority (ISA) – a UN physique that oversees mining on the excessive seas – giving the inexperienced gentle for industrial exploitation.

As China leads the hunt for deep-sea minerals, environmental issues floor

Captain Nemo appeared to get one factor flawed, nonetheless, in asserting deep sea minerals “could be fairly simple to take advantage of”.

Over the following decade, the Indian authorities plans to pump in additional than US$1 billion to develop and check deep sea applied sciences like underwater crawling machines and human-piloted submarines, in accordance with the earth sciences ministry.

If it really works, the tools will have the ability to attain depths of as much as 6km, the place metals could be 15 instances extra concentrated than in land deposits.

The ISA permits India to discover an space within the Indian Ocean of 75,000 sq km, equal to roughly 2 per cent of the nation’s dimension.

MOON, MARS … AND THE OCEAN

As soon as regarded as too expensive and tough, industrial-scale sea mining may start as early as 2019.

Canada’s Nautilus Minerals is on monitor to grow to be the primary firm to begin operations, which it plans to launch close to the Pacific island nation of Papua New Guinea, in accordance with an organization assertion.

All international locations are as but within the experimental or exploratory section, and the ISA continues to be hammering out regulation and royalty phrases for industrial mining.

The prospect has excited India, which relies upon closely on China, the world’s largest producer of parts. China offers about 90 per cent of uncommon earths, that are utilized in aviation and defence manufacturing.

China’s deep-sea mission to mine the wealth beneath the ocean flooring

It has 4 of the 29 licences awarded by the ISA, and Beijing controls extra exploration areas within the excessive seas than some other nation, in accordance with the Jamaica-based intergovernmental company.

Specialists say India is most fascinated by copper, nickel and cobalt, because it ramps up clear energy era.

Cobalt, additionally produced in Democratic Republic of Congo, is used to make batteries that may retailer vitality from renewable sources, together with photo voltaic and wind.

“These metals should not extensively obtainable in India, so that they have strategic significance,” mentioned Ramadass, whose crew is about to trial mining at a depth of 5,500 metres by 2022.

India’s aim is to grow to be self-reliant within the minerals, and it’s “not in a race with anyone”, he added.

“We’re exploring Mars, we’re exploring the moon, why don’t we discover our personal oceans?” he mentioned.

’FINAL FRONTIER’

Specialists warn that within the absence of a transparent worldwide constitution, deep sea mining operations may trigger irreversible harm to a bit of understood ecology.

Indian environmentalist Richard Mahapatra fears non-public gamers may sound the demise knell for Earth’s “closing frontier”, which he mentioned has been explored solely 0.0001 per cent.

The seabed is dwelling to a singular ecology the place colonies of organisms and creatures have advanced over thousands and thousands of years, free of untamed currents, daylight, vibrations and noise which mining would carry, mentioned Mahapatra, managing editor of the New Delhi-based science and setting journal Down To Earth.

In response to a 2017 examine by Britain’s Nationwide Oceanography Centre, mining experiments at seven websites within the Pacific Ocean confirmed the quantity and variety of marine life was diminished “usually severely and for a very long time”.

Sediment plumes and disturbance attributable to mining may wipe out habitats for slow-growing corals and fish, Mahapatra mentioned. It may even have long-term results on how the ocean, which absorbs carbon dioxide and warmth, regulates the world’s local weather.

Whereas the 1982 UN Conference on the Legislation of the Sea already contains regulation of mineral-related actions, environmentalists say the principles should not adequate.

Mahapatra urged international locations to place vested pursuits apart in agreeing the brand new ISA framework, given the harm people have already accomplished to the planet’s environment, land and floor water.

“Deep sea mining can be pure commerce, however there are particular conditions the place you can’t put revenue earlier than folks,” he mentioned. “We must always not rush it, in any other case we’ll head in direction of one other catastrophe [environmental damage].”

MARINE-FRIENDLY TECHNOLOGY?

India’s deep ocean exploration programme dates again greater than 20 years, throughout which it has been surveying the ocean flooring and testing environmental impacts, in accordance with the Nationwide Institute of Oceanography (NIO) within the western state of Goa.

NIO scientist N.H. Khadge mentioned the upcoming ISA pointers, which its 168 member states will signal as much as, would require contractors to “plan minimal disturbance” on the ocean flooring.

B.Okay. Thakur, a senior scientist at New Delhi’s Ministry of Earth Sciences, mentioned in comparison with land mining, seabed operations could be the lesser of two evils.

Sediment kicked up by underwater mining would dissolve and resettle, and there could be no carbon emissions, in contrast to on land, he famous.

India’s quest for undersea dominance, to counter the Chinese language navy

“There could be no must construct roads, infrastructure or … relocate communities – nothing main like we see on land,” he added. However some specialists warned even minor alterations may trigger substantial hurt to marine habitats and sea creatures.

“Mining for nodule assets on the ocean flooring is more likely to be extremely harmful within the mined space, with long-lasting impacts,” mentioned Daniel Jones, creator of the NOC report.

Minimising India’s mining footprint is a problem, mentioned NIOT’s Ramadass, including its expertise could be as “environmentally pleasant” as doable.

With the plan solely to scoop up mineral nodules slightly than digging into the ocean flooring, natural world wouldn’t be destroyed, he believes. However there could be some disturbance, he conceded. “We can not keep away from that,” he mentioned.

Chinese language ‘Sea Dragon’ underwater robotic reaches file depth of practically 6km



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Avianca seeks to chop Airbus order as a lot as half: CEO – NEWPAPER24

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Avianca seeks to chop Airbus order as a lot as half: CEO

2018-12-10 16:55:29

Airline Avianca Holdings SA will start negotiations with Airbus to scale back the 100 planes it had agreed to buy in a 2015 deal to as few as 50, the chief government of the Latin American firm mentioned.

FILE PHOTO: Hernan Rincon, government president and CEO of AVIANCA Holdings S.A., speaks throughout a brand new plane presentation ceremony at Monsignor Oscar Arnulfo Romero Worldwide Airport in San Luis Talpa, El Salvador Could 7, 2018. Newpaper24/Jose Cabezas

BOGOTA: Airline Avianca Holdings SA will start negotiations with Airbus to scale back the 100 planes it had agreed to buy in a 2015 deal to as few as 50, the chief government of the Latin American firm mentioned.

Avianca was additionally looking for a strategic alliance with German airline Lufthansa , CEO Hernan Rincon mentioned late on Sunday, a part of its bid to increase in Europe.

Avianca representatives will journey to France within the coming days for re-negotiations with Airbus, Rincon mentioned. Avianca had agreed to purchase 100 A320neo planes to modernize its fleet.

“Of these 100, we’ll in all probability obtain between 50 and 80 planes,” he mentioned. “We have no doubt that we are going to continue to grow, what has modified is the rhythm of the expansion.”

Technological development is a part of the explanation for the airline wanting to scale back its purchases, Rincon added.

“The rhythm of expertise is altering, it’ll take some time to get all the order and we do not need to have a dedication to planes with as we speak’s expertise which can be obtained by us in 10 or 15 years,” he mentioned.

A discount within the authentic order, which was set to value US$10 billion, may even give Avianca some monetary respiratory room, Rincon added.

On the finish of final month Avianca, United Continental Holdings Inc and Copa Airways of Panama mentioned that they had finalized a three-way three way partnership that may enable them to plan routes and fares collectively and Share revenues on these routes.

United, Avianca and Copa are already codeshare companions and Star Alliance members.

“We have began conversations with Lufthansa, however its very embryonic,” mentioned Rincon. “We hope to succeed in an settlement to profit our passengers in Europe, which is a related and rising market.”

The cope with Lufthansa could be just like the one simply agreed with United and Copa, Rincon added.

Below the United and Copa settlement, United mentioned it could present a US$456 million time period mortgage to cash-strapped Avianca’s prime shareholder, Synergy Group Corp. Loss-making Avianca has a roughly US$four billion debt pile, of which 40 p.c is due throughout the subsequent two years, based on latest monetary statements.

That deal nonetheless needs to be authorised by regulators.

Avianca may even begin working a regional subsidiary in Colombia in 2019, meant to serve medium and small-sized cities with 12 ATR 42 planes. The planes are already a part of Avianca’s fleet, Rincon mentioned.

(Reporting by Luis Jaime Acosta; Writing by Julia Symmes Cobb; Enhancing by Helen Murphy and Marguerita Choy)

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British courtroom approves the extradition of Indian tycoon Vijay Mallya on costs of fraud and cash laundering – NEWPAPER24

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British courtroom approves the extradition of Indian tycoon Vijay Mallya on costs of fraud and cash laundering

2018-12-10 14:45:45


Vijay Mallya, the fugitive Indian tycoon combating a number of circumstances within the UK after defaulting on loans, has misplaced a bid to keep away from extradition to his residence nation the place he faces costs of fraud and cash laundering.

Choose Emma Arbuthnot dominated in opposition to Mallya at a listening to in London on Monday, largely rejecting his arguments that the case was politically motivated.

“I don’t settle for the courts in India are there to do what the politicians inform them to do,” Arbuthnot informed a packed courtroom. “There isn’t any signal that it is a false case” to assuage Indian prosecutors’ “political masters.”

The ruling by the British courtroom is an important win for Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s authorities, which has been battling to comprise the political injury after some 31 Indians linked to fraud circumstances fled overseas to keep away from prosecution.

With nationwide elections due early subsequent 12 months, Modi is underneath strain to behave in opposition to rich defaulters because the nation’s lenders step up efforts to wash up dangerous loans, partly by tightening chapter guidelines.

India’s central financial institution chief quits amid row over authorities interference

The choose informed Mallya that he confronted “a protracted course of,” and will stay free on bail within the meantime. The matter might be referred to the UK Residence Workplace.

Mallya, 62, was arrested in London in April 2017 after a consortium of 17 banks accused him of wilfully defaulting on greater than 91 billion rupees (US$1.26 billion) in debt collected by his Kingfisher Airways – a full-service service he based in 2005 and shut down seven years later. A wilful defaulter is somebody who refuses to repay loans regardless of having the means to take action.

Dubbed the “king of fine occasions” again in India after the tagline for Kingfisher beer, Mallya left the nation in 2016 for England to be nearer to his kids and has since refused to return.

Whereas native authorities labelled the previous lawmaker a “fugitive,” he mentioned he was dealing with trial by media with a “lynch mob mentality all too obvious,” and doubted if he would get a good trial again residence.

Moreover Mallya, India’s authorities can also be looking for to prosecute people together with Nirav Modi, a jeweller who’s been accused by Punjab Nationwide Financial institution of fraud, allegations he has denied.

Mallya, who has sparred with the native media for portraying him because the poster boy for the nation’s dangerous loans, has maintained that his airline was an “unlucky business failure” due to macroeconomic elements and authorities insurance policies.

In tweets this month, Mallya denied the allegations in opposition to him however provided to pay lenders again the principal quantity he owed.

After taking on a beer and liquor empire from his father within the 1980s, Mallya ventured into aviation with Kingfisher Airways in a bid to redefine luxurious journey in India. He was ranked the 45th-richest Indian by Forbes in 2012, with a web price of US$1 billion.



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Chinese language court docket bans iPhone gross sales in patent dispute, Qualcomm says – NEWPAPER24

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Chinese language court docket bans iPhone gross sales in patent dispute, Qualcomm says

2018-12-10 15:27:39


A Chinese language court docket ordered a ban within the nation on iPhone gross sales in a patent dispute between US chip maker Qualcomm and Apple, in accordance with a Qualcomm assertion on Monday.

The assertion stated Fuzhou Intermediate Individuals’s Court docket had granted Qualcomm’s request for 2 preliminary injunctions in opposition to 4 subsidiaries of Apple, ordering them to right away to cease promoting the iPhone 6S, iPhone 6S Plus, iPhone 7, iPhone 7 Plus, iPhone 8, iPhone Eight Plus and iPhone X.

The transfer marked the most recent in a long-running dispute over patents and royalties between the 2 California tech giants taking part in out in courts and administrative our bodies worldwide.

“Apple continues to profit from our mental property whereas refusing to compensate us. These court docket orders are additional affirmation of the power of Qualcomm’s huge patent portfolio,” stated Don Rosenberg, Qualcomm govt vice-president and common counsel in Monday’s assertion.

The China case relies on patents which allow customers to regulate and reformat the scale and look of images and handle functions utilizing a contact display, Qualcomm stated.

An Apple assertion known as Qualcomm’s effort a “determined transfer by an organization whose unlawful practices are beneath investigation by regulators around the globe”.

Apple stated Qualcomm “is asserting three patents that they had by no means raised earlier than, together with one which has already been invalidated”.

Qualcomm may nonetheless take into account re-opening NXP bid regardless of ruling it out, says Taipei-based tech analyst

Apple insisted “all iPhone fashions stay accessible for our clients in China”, including “we are going to pursue all our authorized choices by the courts”.

China has been an vital marketplace for Apple lately since China Cellular agreed to start distributing the smartphones, and the corporate has opened numerous Apple retailers within the nation.

Apple’s most up-to-date quarterly report confirmed it introduced in some US$11 billion – round 18 per cent of its complete revenues – from China.

Apple chief govt Tim Cook dinner has made common visits to China, and touted the corporate’s inroads within the native market in addition to its manufacturing there.

Qualcomm, the main provider of chips for cellular units, has been in a chronic authorized battle with Apple lately.

Apple claimed that Qualcomm is abusing its market energy over sure cellular chipsets to demand unfair royalties, becoming a member of a string of antitrust actions in opposition to the chip maker.

Qualcomm unveils new chips to fireside up race to 5G providers in 2019

Qualcomm has countersued Apple and earlier this 12 months escalated its authorized battle, claiming the iPhone maker stole commerce secrets and techniques and shared them with cellular chip rival Intel.

In accordance with Qualcomm’s US lawsuit, Apple’s objective was to purchase cellular chips from Intel as a substitute of relying on Qualcomm.

Qualcomm is going through antitrust probes in South Korea, the European Union and the US over its dominant place.



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